Background: Adherence has always been a major problem in the treatment of Schizophrenia, despite of the advances in the treatment regime. Various factors influence adherence to antipsychotics in patients of Schizophrenia. This study is the first of its kind, done on a specific group of patients of Schizophrenia on antipsychotic medication, at a tertiary referral hospital, in the Indian setting. It was done to highlight the various factors influencing adherence and non-adherence to antipsychotics which will help plan future directives to address barriers in adherence. Method: The study evaluated the socio-demographic profile, clinical features, causes of adherence and non-adherence, and their associations in 60 patients of Schizophrenia on antipsychotics, using the ICD-10 criteria for research, the modified Kuppuswamy socioeconomic scale, the MINI-PLUS and the ROMI scale. Results: The most common reason for adherence was the family member’s strong belief in the efficacy of medication (96%), while for non-adherence it was the poor financial condition of the patients (71.6%). A significant association was found between the perceived daily benefit, having a strong positive relationship with the clinician, and adherence, as per the ROMI scale. Non-adherence was found in patients who did not perceive any benefit with medication, those who had financial problems and side effects of medication. Conclusion: These findings will help in planning suitable interventions to enhance adherence to antipsychotics in patients of Schizophrenia.